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The Effect of Exposure to See the Sound/Visual Phonics (STS/VP) in First Grade Literacy Instruction on Academic Assessment in Second Grade

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posted on 2018-10-01, 21:28 authored by Jeff KnoxJeff Knox, David Krupke
The data were gathered from Common Core assessments administered three times per year to second grade students. Assent permission had been secured, per IRB agreement, from fifty-one parents. Their children were divided into two groups: those having had exposure to Visual Phonics in first grade, and those who did not.

Data analysis, using both descriptive and interpretive statistics, did not show any significant difference between the mean scores for the two groups across three assessment periods. Effect size also was generally small to moderate.


Declaration of conflicts of interest

There were no conflicts of interest

Corresponding author email

Lead author country

  • United States

Lead author job role

  • Higher Education Faculty 4-yr College

Lead author institution

St. Ambrose University


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