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  • Vadim Ustyuzhanin,
  • Andrey Korotayev
Vadim Ustyuzhanin

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Andrey Korotayev
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Is there a relationship between education and the type of revolutionary action – violent or nonviolent? Past studies found a positive relationship between the education and nonviolence, but the influence that education produces on the form that revolution takes has not yet been explored. This paper examines it at a cross-national level with an analysis of 470 NAVCO ‘maximalist campaigns’ and 265 revolutionary events recorded between 1950 and 2020. Tests using logistic regression and our own index support the hypothesis that mean years of schooling is a usable, strong and consistently significant predictor of the unarmed form of revolutionary action. Moreover, it is also found that education has the highest pacifying effect in the early stages of modernization, but then this effect gradually decreases and in developed countries education has a less strong pacifying effect.
Oct 2023Published in Cross-Cultural Research volume 57 issue 4 on pages 352-390. 10.1177/10693971231162231