Preprints are early versions of research articles that have not been peer reviewed. They should not be regarded as conclusive and should not be reported in news media as established information.
preprint submission.docx (107.22 kB)

Understanding Public’s Adoption of Preventive Behavior during COVID-19 Pandemic using Health Belief Model: Role of Appraisals and Psychological Capital

Download (107.22 kB)
posted on 2020-07-17, 17:59 authored by Farhan SarwarFarhan Sarwar, Siti Aisyah Panatik, Hafiz Tahir Jameel
The relationship between health psychological capital, determinants of health belief model (HBM), and individual’s adoption of preventive behaviors were studied. Participants from Pakistan (N= 323) and Malaysia (N= 343) completed an online survey. Samples from both countries were analyzed separately and compared for measurement model invariance and difference in path coefficients. Data screening, frequency analysis, and common method bias were analyzed using IBM-SPSS-25®. Partial least squares approach to SEM using SMART-PLS 3 software was adopted to analyze the measurement model, structural model, importance-performance analysis, and mediation testing. Our finding showed that model explained higher variance in preventive behavior for Pakistani samples compared to Malaysian samples. Perceived benefits followed by perceived threats were the two most important predictors of preventive behaviors in both countries. The perceived barrier was an important predictor for the Pakistani sample but had no contribution to the Malaysian sample. Health PsyCap had a direct as well as an indirect effect through perceived benefit and perceived threat (Malaysian sample only) on the outcome. Perceived seriousness and perceived susceptibility (Malaysian sample only) were related to preventive behavior through perceived threat.


Declaration of conflicts of interest


Corresponding author email

Lead author country

  • Pakistan

Lead author job role

  • Higher Education Lecturer

Lead author institution

University of Education Lahore

Human Participants

  • Yes

Ethics statement

Participation in the study was voluntary and responses were kept anonymous. The study was ethically reviewed and approved by the Ethical Review Board of Faculty of Education, Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan.


Log in to write your comment here...