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relationship between health psychological capital, determinants of health
belief model (HBM), and individual’s adoption of preventive behaviors were
studied. Participants from Pakistan (N= 323) and Malaysia (N= 343) completed an
online survey. Samples from both countries were analyzed separately and
compared for measurement model invariance and difference in path coefficients.
Data screening, frequency analysis, and common method bias were analyzed using
IBM-SPSS-25®. Partial least squares approach to SEM using SMART-PLS 3 software
was adopted to analyze the measurement model, structural model, importance-performance
analysis, and mediation testing. Our finding showed that model explained higher
variance in preventive behavior for Pakistani samples compared to Malaysian
samples. Perceived benefits followed by perceived threats were the two most important
predictors of preventive behaviors in both countries. The perceived barrier was
an important predictor for the Pakistani sample but had no contribution to the Malaysian
sample. Health PsyCap had a direct as well as an indirect effect through
perceived benefit and perceived threat (Malaysian sample only) on the outcome.
Perceived seriousness and perceived susceptibility (Malaysian sample only) were
related to preventive behavior through perceived threat.
Participation in the study was voluntary and responses were kept anonymous. The study was ethically reviewed and approved by the Ethical Review Board of Faculty of Education, Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan.