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Turn-Taking and Negotiation of Meaning to Construct an Online Conversation Between Two Low-Intermediate Japanese EFL Learners
This illustrative case study aims to explore the use of turn-taking and negotiation of meaning between two low-intermediate female Japanese university students and consider pedagogical implications. After a voice-recorded online conversation between the participants via Zoom was transcribed by an online automatic transcription tool and the researcher, a conversation analysis was conducted based on Wong and Waring (2021). The findings illustrated that the participants utilised various negotiation strategies, especially confirmation check, clarification requests, and comprehension check, to elicit more information about the interlocutor and shift from one conversation topic to another. Furthermore, their first language communicative beliefs might play an important role in their use of negotiation and turn-taking. Therefore, language teachers may need to provide learners with many opportunities to learn and use various negotiation strategies in meaning-driven interactive activities whilst appreciating the learners’ first language communication cultures.