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The connection of committing and experiencing cyber-bullying peer violence with depression, anxiety and stress in high school students
This research has aimed to determine whether cyber-bullying peer violence is associated with depression, anxiety and stress in high school students. The research results are based on the data obtained from a sample of 202 Montenegrin high school students. It has been established that committing and experiencing e-violence is associated with depression. Committing and experiencing verbal online violence, as well as involvement in online counterfeiting/criminal acts, is associated with depression, while involvement in online identity concealment and lies has no connection with depression. When it comes to anxiety, the results of this research show that involvement in verbal e-violence and in online counterfeiting/criminal acts leads to anxiety, while committing and experiencing online identity concealmentis not related to anxiety. When it comes to committing and experiencing verbal online violence and stress, although there is a statistically significant difference, it is not applicable for all values. Consequently, we cannot draw a strong enough conclusion about it. Victims of online counterfeiting and criminal acts, according to the results of our research, have a higher level of stress than those not involved in this type of cyber-bullying peer violence.
Cyber victim and bullying scale has been used to collect data on committing and experiencing e-violence among peers (Cetin, Yaman and Peker, 2011).Permission to use this scale was requested and obtained. The scale examines experiencing and committing online violence. It consists of two parts, each part containing 22 particles. In the first part (Experiencing cyber-bullying subscale), participants have assessed whether the described behavior happened to them,on a scale from 1 (never) to 5 (always). In the second part (Committing cyber-bullying subscale), and with identical particles, respondents have assessed whether they themselves behaved in this way.
In our research, we have performed a factor analysis of the Cyber victim and bulling scale .
When it comes to the Committing cyber-bullying subscale, the percentage of explained variance amounts to 55.141%, whereas factor analysis also points to 3 factors, namely: a) verbal online violence; b) online identity concealment and lies; and c) online counterfeiting and criminal acts.
When it comes to the Experiencing cyber-bullying subscale, the percentage of explained variance amounts to 65,211%, whereas factor analysis also points to 3 factors, namely: a) verbal online violence; b) online identity concealment and lies; and c) online counterfeiting and criminal acts. We have used a scale for assessing the depression, anxiety and stress levels (DASS21) to determine whether experiencing e-violence leads to depression, anxiety and stress,and to what extent. We have chosen this scale because the results of a research checking its psychometric qualities have indicated that the DASS-21 scale’s psychometric qualities recommend it for use in researching unpleasant emotional states in adolescents. DASS-21 is a 21-item self-report measure giving three subclasses of seven items each: depression , anxiety and stress. Participants have been asked to indicate which statement applied to them over the past week on the Likert 4-point scale. DASS-21 has high reliability, consistent factor structure and high convergent valiadity. We did not have to ask permission for this scale and it can be used freely.
This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Declaration of conflicts of interestThe Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest.
Corresponding author firstname.lastname@example.org
Lead author country
- Serbia and Montenegro
Lead author job role
- PhD Student
Lead author institutionDoctoral student at the Faculty of Philosophy and pedagogue at the First Secondary Vocational School