The Causes of Chinese Employees’ Complaints in the Workplace: Scale Development and Validation
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For Study 1, both online and offline data collections were used in this study. For the online part of the study, after designing the questionnaire on the Quatrics platform, links were delivered to workers in various industries. Of the 193 individuals who began the online survey, 177 finished it. For the offline part of the study, 125 printed questionnaires were distributed to MBA students of a leading university in Northeastern China; 65 of them were distributed in Marketing classes, and the other 60 were distributed in Strategic Management classes. In total, 111 valid responses were returned.
For Study 2, A survey comprising the six-dimensional measures of the causes of complaints was conducted among companies in a province of Northeastern China. Ten MBA students from one of the leading universities in Northeastern China were selected to help with the data collection. The selection criteria of these MBA students were: (a) being willing to help us collect the questionnaires, (b) working for a company but not a non-profit organization, and (c) holding a management position in their company. They were first trained for the purposes of the survey and in questionnaire administration techniques, such as not letting the participants know the purposes of the study and allowing them to complete the questionnaire individually and without interference. Then, 40 printed questionnaires were assigned to each MBA student, and they were asked to return the questionnaires in three days. Four hundred questionnaires were distributed, and we received a total of 362 valid responses, with a valid response rate of 90.5%.