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posted on 2019-10-25, 23:04 authored by Naveed ShibliNaveed Shibli, ASIF ALI TAHIRASIF ALI TAHIR

Participants belonging to demarcated areas, 100 from a cautioned area and 100 from not a cautioned area located in close vicinity of a district including 50 male and 50 female in each, equated on education and residing in urban and rural areas were tested for the level of self-efficacy with Self-efficacy Scale and the levels of fear of unknown with a self-evolved scale based on some borrowed items from Beck Anxiety Inventory assuming that both groups of participants may behave differently due to nature of residing area? The results reflected a difference in self-efficacy and unknown fear, the response difference on both measures were also observed in urban and rural areas, significant negative relationship between self-efficacy and unknown fear was also observed. Some gender related information emerged as well. Implication regarding the relationship of residing briefly discussed with reference to town planning, law enforcement and adventurism.


Declaration of conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Corresponding author email

Lead author country

  • Pakistan

Lead author job role

  • Higher Education Faculty 4-yr College

Lead author institution

Department of Psychology Rihah International University Faisalabad

Human Participants

  • Yes

Ethics statement

Informed consent was provided and this study was approved by Riphah Research Ethics Committee.


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