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Stress Scale in the Context of Online Learning among Junior High School Students (ages 11-17): Development, Validity, and Reliability

posted on 2021-07-30, 16:50 authored by Mardocheo CrispinoMardocheo Crispino, Laarni Ann Ledesma, Reyna Lou Belaro, Randolf S. Sasota

The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted an unprecedented shift from face-to-face to online learning. Considering the impact of this transition, the researchers developed a scale measuring the stress levels of 319 junior high school students. Based on the evaluation of experts, the item content validity index (I-CVI) proved the validity of each item. From the original 32, 20 items were retained after conducting exploratory factor analysis (EFA). A new clustering was derived from the results, namely: (1) physical health, (2) task management, (3) valuing, and (4) relating to oneself and others. The final 20-item scale was proven to have internal consistency among items with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.923. The results of measurement invariance (MI) tests indicate that the newly developed four-factor stress scale in the context of online learning measure the same underlying constructs across sex, grade level, and age groups. Consequently, the differences in stress levels among the groups were also determined.


Declaration of conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Corresponding author email

Lead author country

  • Philippines

Lead author job role

  • Postgraduate Student

Lead author institution

University of the Philippines Diliman

Human Participants

  • Yes

Ethics statement

The results of the study were not attributed to or associated with any of the participants. The institution where the study was done approved the conduct of the study following all its ethical regulations and considerations.

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