Social Avoidance and stigma among healthcare workers who deal with Coronavirus COVID-19 Patients in Saudi Arabia
An online questionnaire was distributed to the target population (N = ~2000); 226 completed forms were received from respondents Missing values in all variables did not exceed 6% of cases. Missing data analysis was then followed with Little’s (1988) missing completely at random test. The results were not significant, χ2 (59) = 73.340, p = .099, suggesting that the values were missing entirely by chance. Thus, the missing values in the dataset were estimated with the expectation–maximization algorithm. To examine outliers among cases, data were evaluated for univariate and multivariate outliers by examining Mahalanobis distance for each participant. An outlier was defined as a Mahalanobis score that was over than Mahal. Critical score cv = 55.32; univariate or multivariate outliers were 31 cases with 13% (Tabachnik & Fidell, 2013, McLachlan GJ. (1999).