Preprints are early versions of research articles that have not been peer reviewed. They should not be regarded as conclusive and should not be reported in news media as established information.
Social Avoidance and stigma among healthcare workers who deal with Coronavirus COVID-19 Patients in Saudi Arabia.docx (109.27 kB)

Social Avoidance and stigma among healthcare workers who deal with Coronavirus COVID-19 Patients in Saudi Arabia

Download (109.27 kB)
posted on 2021-03-22, 20:50 authored by Abduruhman Fahad Alajmi1, Hmoud Al-OlimatHmoud Al-Olimat, Reham Abu Ghaboush, Nada A. Al Buniaian

An online questionnaire was distributed to the target population (N = ~2000); 226 completed forms were received from respondents Missing values in all variables did not exceed 6% of cases. Missing data analysis was then followed with Little’s (1988) missing completely at random test. The results were not significant, χ2 (59) = 73.340, p = .099, suggesting that the values were missing entirely by chance. Thus, the missing values in the dataset were estimated with the expectation–maximization algorithm. To examine outliers among cases, data were evaluated for univariate and multivariate outliers by examining Mahalanobis distance for each participant. An outlier was defined as a Mahalanobis score that was over than Mahal. Critical score cv = 55.32; univariate or multivariate outliers were 31 cases with 13% (Tabachnik & Fidell, 2013, McLachlan GJ. (1999).


No Funding was obtained


Declaration of conflicts of interest

The authors declare no potential of conflict of interest in the preparation o and the publication of this article.

Corresponding author email

Lead author country

  • Saudi Arabia

Lead author job role

  • Other

Lead author institution

Ministry of Health - Saudi Arabia

Human Participants

  • No

Ethics statement

Ethical approval for the present study was obtained from the concerned department at the health cluster, allocated as an emergency response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Besides, informed consent was obtained before responding to the questionnaire. The nature of the study was explained to the participants they were informed that their participation was voluntary and that they could withdraw from the study at any time, and the anonymity and confidentiality of the data were assured. Only those who agreed to the ethical requirements and informed consent participated in the study.


Log in to write your comment here...

Usage metrics

    Advance: Social Sciences & Humanities