Prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders among people with autism spectrum disorder: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses
With ever-increasing prevalence of various mental disorders worldwide, a comprehensive evaluation of the prevalence of co-occurring psychiatric disorders among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is needed to strengthen the knowledge base. This umbrella review aims to summarize the current evidence on the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders among people with ASD. A systematic search of 12 major databases and additional sources was conducted. Any systematically conducted narrative, qualitative, or meta-analytic review reporting the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among people with ASD with no age or geographical restriction were included. From a total of 2755 records, 26 articles representing 14 systematic reviews and 12 meta-analyses met the criteria of this review. The synthesized findings reveal a high burden of comorbid psychiatric disorders among people with ASD, including anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, bipolar and mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum, suicidal behavior disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disruptive, impulse-control and conduct disorders amongst diverse age groups, with a majority in younger participants. Most studies were conducted in developed nations, with limited evidence from low and middle-income countries. These synthesized findings provide high-quality evidence for clinical and policy-level decision-making from a global overview of the status of comorbid psychiatric disorders among people with ASD.