Preprints are early versions of research articles that have not been peer reviewed. They should not be regarded as conclusive and should not be reported in news media as established information.
Sadownik, S.A. (2022). Leadership, Citizenship and Critical Thinking Enabled Through Machiavellian Methodologies -HEA'd.pdf (180.54 kB)

Leadership, Citizenship and Critical Thinking Enabled Through Machiavellian Methodologies

Download (180.54 kB)
posted on 2022-03-30, 20:01 authored by Stephanie SadownikStephanie Sadownik

From a behavioural perspective data-driven decision making enabled through tracking of online behaviour and communication may afford school organizations the ability to gain insight into behavioural intention. Traits common with Machiavellianism in online behaviour on social media websites lends itself to spying to increase the users repertoire of “advantageous” information to use. This study considers the potential student benefits attributed to tracking online behaviour and collection of “advantageous” information found online in schools including the development of leadership, citizenship and critical thinking, as well as enabling data-driven decision making and evidence-based psychology. Data and results from a two-year qualitative study provides insight into school administration and information technology staff experience with technology policies and the collection of student data.


Declaration of conflicts of interest


Corresponding author email

Lead author country

  • Canada

Lead author job role

  • Higher Education Lecturer

Lead author institution

University of Toronto

Ethics statement

University of Toronto Research Ethics Board review and protocol

Terms agreed

  • Yes, I agree to Advance terms

Comments (1)

Log in to write your comment here...

Preparing a training course, seminar or any learning experience should be based on the learners’ needs and their interpretation. It is important for a trainer to identify the main ways and methods to identify learners’ needs and to be aware of the importance of doing this process to base the learning intervention on solid foundations. Name Style