Preprints are early versions of research articles that have not been peer reviewed. They should not be regarded as conclusive and should not be reported in news media as established information.
Sadownik, S.A. (2022). Leadership, Citizenship and Critical Thinking Enabled Through Machiavellian Methodologies -HEA'd.pdf (180.54 kB)
Download file

Leadership, Citizenship and Critical Thinking Enabled Through Machiavellian Methodologies

Download (180.54 kB)
posted on 30.03.2022, 20:01 authored by Stephanie SadownikStephanie Sadownik

From a behavioural perspective data-driven decision making enabled through tracking of online behaviour and communication may afford school organizations the ability to gain insight into behavioural intention. Traits common with Machiavellianism in online behaviour on social media websites lends itself to spying to increase the users repertoire of “advantageous” information to use. This study considers the potential student benefits attributed to tracking online behaviour and collection of “advantageous” information found online in schools including the development of leadership, citizenship and critical thinking, as well as enabling data-driven decision making and evidence-based psychology. Data and results from a two-year qualitative study provides insight into school administration and information technology staff experience with technology policies and the collection of student data.


Declaration of conflicts of interest


Corresponding author email

Lead author country


Lead author job role

Higher Education Lecturer

Lead author institution

University of Toronto

Ethics statement

University of Toronto Research Ethics Board review and protocol

Terms agreed

Yes, I agree to Advance terms


Log in to write your comment here...