Preprints are early versions of research articles that have not been peer reviewed. They should not be regarded as conclusive and should not be reported in news media as established information.
If Russia were in Africa 10082022.pdf (1.37 MB)
Download file

If Russia were in Africa: Analyzing the double bias of EU and U.S. sanctions

Download (1.37 MB)
posted on 2022-10-05, 23:31 authored by Gerald SchneiderGerald Schneider, Patrick M Weber, Alessia Invernizzi

This article examines the double bias that the two most important senders of economic sanctions, the European Union and the United States, frequently introduce into their coercive measures. Distinguishing between sanction incidence and intensity, we conceive of the executive branch of the two senders as opportunistic actors that balance the influence of competing interest groups. We argue that economic interest groups try to prevent the imposition of strong sanctions if important interests are at stake. However, strong diasporas from the target state and violations of core liberal values increase the chance of forceful measures. Our examination of the post-Cold War era lends support to our demand- and supply-side analysis of the double bias in the coercive regimes of these two Western powers. Counterfactual simulations demonstrate that the measures of the EU against Russia and of the U.S. against China have been repeatedly too weak during the post-Cold War era.


Declaration of conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest

Corresponding author email

Lead author country

  • Germany

Lead author job role

  • Career College Faculty

Lead author institution

University of Konstanz

Terms agreed

  • Yes, I agree to Advance terms

Comments (2)

Log in to write your comment here...

This is a valuable article for me thank you.Click here

Agreed terms and conditions name style