Government evaluations in Japan are linked to the business culture. This study investigated government evaluations in cities and towns/villages using primary survey data from 2014 and 2015. The dominant method was Jimujigyo Hyoka, a cross-sectional evaluation of programs using performance measures, implemented by 80% of municipalities with government evaluations. Cities were more likely than smaller municipalities to have implemented evaluations (84.6% vs. 37.4%). Almost none of the smaller municipalities had implemented evaluations because of the lack of resources. The main problems were the lack of clarity and internal consistency in the results and the effort and workload involved.
Declaration of conflicts of interestThere are no conflicts of interest to declare.
Lead author countryJapan
Lead author job roleHigher Education Faculty 4-yr College
Lead author institutionHiroshima University
Ethics statementAll of the survey respondents were government officials in charge of government evaluations who were well informed about the survey and participated voluntarily. The committee in charge of grants for young researchers at Hiroshima University approved the survey design.