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Preprints are early versions of research articles that have not been peer reviewed. They should not be regarded as conclusive and should not be reported in news media as established information.
Explaining Presidential Approval, 1993-2020: An Examination of the Clinton, Bush, Obama and Trump Presidencies
preprintposted on 2021-09-08, 15:54 authored by Charles Ostrom, Alon KraitzmanAlon Kraitzman, Brian Newman
Can public support for recent presidents be explained by long-held findings in the presidential approval literature? The presidencies, of Clinton, George W. Bush, Obama, and Trump seem to counter the existing literature, suggesting that recent approval ratings have become disconnected from the political environment. We synthesize prior scholarship on the environmental connection, salience, and economic handling to develop a general model to evaluate approval during the 1992-2020 period. The model estimates show the environmental connection remains intact. Looking at these four presidents together, we find the public punished and rewarded presidents in a manner consistent with the long-held findings of the literature. Even though each of these four presidents served in unique circumstances, the foundation of the public’s approval remained consistent. Our results point to an enduring environmental connection that holds presidents accountable for the conditions of the day.
Declaration of conflicts of interestThe authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Corresponding author email@example.com
Lead author country
- United States
Lead author job role
- Higher Education Researcher
Lead author institutionMichigan State University
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