Estimating the Impact of Expulsions, Suspensions, and Arrests on Average School Proficiency Rates in Ohio using Fixed Effects
This study uses panel data (2011-12, 2013-14, 2015-16) from three sources—the US Department of Education Office for Civil Rights (OCR), the National Center for Education Statistics’ Common Core Data (CCD), and the Ohio Department of Education (ODE) school report cards. These data were then merged using a common key to create one large dataset. OCR and CCD data have a common school identification key that was readily available. Data from ODE contained Building and District identification numbers that were concatenated to create a school ID that was identical to the one in the other two datasets.