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Education and revol afvance.pdf (1.65 MB)

EDUCATION AND REVOLUTIONS. Why do revolutionary uprisings take violent or nonviolent forms?

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posted on 2022-02-24, 23:59 authored by Vadim UstyuzhaninVadim Ustyuzhanin, Andrey Korotayev

Is there a relationship between education and the type of revolutionary action – violent or nonviolent? Past studies found a positive relationship between the education and nonviolence, but the influence that education produces on the form that revolution takes has not yet been explored. This paper examines it at a cross-national level with an analysis of 470 NAVCO ‘maximalist campaigns’ and 265 revolutionary events recorded between 1950 and 2020. Tests using logistic regression and our own index support the hypothesis that mean years of schooling is a usable, strong and consistently significant predictor of the unarmed form of revolutionary action. Moreover, it is also found that education has the highest pacifying effect in the early stages of modernization, but then this effect gradually decreases and in developed countries education has a less strong pacifying effect.


Russian Science Foundation #18-18-00254


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The authors declare no conflicts of interest

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Lead author country

  • Russian Federation

Lead author job role

  • Undergraduate Student

Lead author institution

Higher School of Economics

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In this broad sense, impartiality is probably best characterized in a negative rather than positive manner: an impartial choice is simply one in which a certain sort of consideration (i.e. some property of the individuals being chosen between) has no influence. Read More

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