Citizen ownership of the state: A measure using election promise implementation score
This paper introduces a measure of citizen ownership of the state, which works with empirical data. The paper defines citizen ownership of the state as a condition where whatever the majority of citizens want is implemented. In the present-day large scale state, whatever the majority of citizens want is expressed in the election promises of the winning party, alliance or individuals. The paper argues that the level of implementation of election promises is a measurement of citizen ownership of the state. It models the authority of a representative government to a power of attorney. The citizen as principal awards a power of attorney to the winning party, alliance or individuals as an agent in their election. In the election, the set of election promises of the agent becomes the only written part of the power of attorney. The 2008-2012 tenure of US President Barack Obama is used to test how the methodological approach works with empirical data. The test finds the citizen ownership of the state in the USA at 70.7 percent and the party intrusion into the ownership at 29.3 percent during the tenure..