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Challenges of the Food Security in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: An Empirical Analysis of Fixed and Random effects
This research aims to identify the challenges of the food security indicators in the GCC countries for the period 2000-2020. The study applies three alternatives to panel data analysis. The results find that population is a significant driver of food security challenges in the GCC countries. Moreover, food price inflation has a significant affect the food availability and stability but show no significance on food access and utilization. Fertilizer consumption has significant challenges the food utilization. The results show that there is evidence of significant differences in food security across the GCC countries. The random-effects estimators of regression coefficients of food availability and stability challenges are more statistically efficient than those for pooled ordinary least square and fixed effects. While the fixed effects estimators are most preferred for the coefficients of food access and utilization challenges. The study recommends that decision-makers embark on interferences that stimulate food security to meet the continual increase in population also future research should be applied on the other factors that challenged food security.
This research was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia for financial support under the Nasher (edition third) funding track, grant No. (NA00032).
Declaration of conflicts of interestThe author declared no potential conflicts of interest.
Corresponding author email@example.com
Lead author country
- Saudi Arabia
Lead author job role
- Higher Education Lecturer
Lead author institutionKFU
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