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posted on 2022-06-14, 19:22 authored by Elena LisáElena Lisá

The study aimed to empirically prove sixteen psychological types based on the theory of C.G. Jung and the work of K.C. Briggs and I. Briggs Myers. A thousand one hundred and fifty-three adults aged from 18 to 69 completed the Golden Profiler of Personality (GPOP) questionnaire. The differences between percentiles rank score in the opposition preferences of the global dimensions (extroverted (E) / introverting (I), sensing (S)/ intuition (N), thinking (T) / feeling (F), judging (J) / perceiving (P)) entered K-means cluster analysis. The results of the analysis empirically confirmed the existence of sixteen psychological types. They differed in the raw score of all preferences significantly with a large effect size. 37% of the research sample did not enter the cluster analyses due to the small difference between the opposite preferences. Not all participants had their preferences differentiated enough to be a type; the discussion dealt with conditions of empirical confirmation of psychological types.


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No conflict of interest.

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Lead author country

  • Slovakia

Lead author job role

  • Higher Education Researcher

Ethics statement

The participants agreed with anonymous and group data analysis for the research study purpose. To strengthen the motivation to fill in the questionnaire, the participants received the feedback report with the results. The research was aligned with the Ethical Code of Pan-European University No. 1 / 2018.

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