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In July 2018, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) released the preliminary results of the 2017 Agricultural Census, addressing fundamental matters related to Brazilian agrarian structure. The preliminary results point to important transformations that have occurred in the 11 years since the previous agricultural census. Some of these findings indicate shifts in agricultural land, including changes in the productive structure of the fields, an increase in the average area of establishments, a possible increase in the concentration of access to land, an expansion of temporary cropping areas in the North Region, and an increase of forest areas in the Southeast Region. Other results reveal changes in the agrarian labor force, such as an aging population of agricultural workers, a decreasing number of agrarian workers, and increased participation of women in the management of establishments. The census also suggests an increase in the use of machines and agrochemicals, among other findings. In summary, the results indicate a continuous process of agricultural modernization, but also point to the permanence and importance of subsistence production in rural Brazil.